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EXTRACT, date_part

Description

EXTRACT(field FROM source)

The extract function retrieves subfields such as year or hour from date/time values. source must be a value expression of type timestamp, time, or interval. (Expressions of type date are cast to timestamp and can therefore be used as well.) field is an identifier or string that selects what field to extract from the source value. The extract function returns values of type double precision. The following are valid field names:

century

SELECT EXTRACT(CENTURY FROM TIMESTAMP '2000-12-16 12:21:13');
Result: 20
SELECT EXTRACT(CENTURY FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 21

The first century starts at 0001-01-01 00:00:00 AD, although they did not know it at the time. This definition applies to all Gregorian calendar countries. There is no century number 0, you go from -1 century to 1 century. If you disagree with this, please write your complaint to: Pope, Cathedral Saint-Peter of Roma, Vatican.

day

For timestamp values, the day (of the month) field (1 – 31) ; for interval values, the number of days

SELECT EXTRACT(DAY FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 16
SELECT EXTRACT(DAY FROM INTERVAL '40 days 1 minute');
Result: 40

decade

The year field divided by 10

SELECT EXTRACT(DECADE FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 200

dow

The day of the week as Sunday (0) to Saturday (6)

SELECT EXTRACT(DOW FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 5 

Note that extract‘s day of the week numbering differs from that of the to_char(…, ‘D’) function.

doy

The day of the year (1 – 365/366)

SELECT EXTRACT(DOY FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 47 

epoch

For timestamp with time zone values, the number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC (can be negative); for date and timestamp values, the number of seconds since 1970- 01-01 00:00:00 local time; for interval values, the total number of seconds in the interval

SELECT EXTRACT(EPOCH FROM TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE '2001-02-16 20:38:40.12- 08');
Result: 982384720.12
SELECT EXTRACT(EPOCH FROM INTERVAL '5 days 3 hours');
Result: 442800

Here is how you can convert an epoch value back to a time stamp:

SELECT TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE 'epoch' + 982384720.12 * INTERVAL '1 second';

(The to_timestamp function encapsulates the above conversion.)

hour

The hour field (0 – 23)

SELECT EXTRACT(HOUR FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 20 

isodow

The day of the week as Monday (1) to Sunday (7)

SELECT EXTRACT(ISODOW FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-18 20:38:40');
Result: 7 

This is identical to dow except for Sunday. This matches the ISO 8601 day of the week numbering.

isoyear

The ISO 8601 week-numbering year that the date falls in (not applicable to intervals)

SELECT EXTRACT(ISOYEAR FROM DATE '2006-01-01');
Result: 2005
SELECT EXTRACT(ISOYEAR FROM DATE '2006-01-02');
Result: 2006 

Each ISO 8601 week-numbering year begins with the Monday of the week containing the 4th of January, so in early January or late December the ISO year may be different from the Gregorian year. See the week field for more information.

This field is not available in PostgreSQL releases prior to 8.3.

microseconds

The seconds field, including fractional parts, multiplied by 1 000 000; note that this includes full seconds

SELECT EXTRACT(MICROSECONDS FROM TIME '17:12:28.5');
Result: 28500000 

millennium

The millennium

SELECT EXTRACT(MILLENNIUM FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 3 

Years in the 1900s are in the second millennium. The third millennium started January 1, 2001.

milliseconds

The seconds field, including fractional parts, multiplied by 1000. Note that this includes full seconds.

SELECT EXTRACT(MILLISECONDS FROM TIME '17:12:28.5');
Result: 28500 

minute

The minutes field (0 – 59)

SELECT EXTRACT(MINUTE FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 38 

month

For timestamp values, the number of the month within the year (1 – 12) ; for interval values, the number of months, modulo 12 (0 – 11)

SELECT EXTRACT(MONTH FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 2
SELECT EXTRACT(MONTH FROM INTERVAL '2 years 3 months');
Result: 3
SELECT EXTRACT(MONTH FROM INTERVAL '2 years 13 months');
Result: 1 

quarter

The quarter of the year (1 – 4) that the date is in

SELECT EXTRACT(QUARTER FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 1 

second

The seconds field, including fractional parts (0 – 59[1])

SELECT EXTRACT(SECOND FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 40
SELECT EXTRACT(SECOND FROM TIME '17:12:28.5');
Result: 28.5

timezone

The time zone offset from UTC, measured in seconds. Positive values correspond to time zones east of UTC, negative values to zones west of UTC. (Technically, PostgreSQL uses UT1 because leap seconds are not handled.)

timezone_hour

The hour component of the time zone offset

timezone_minute

The minute component of the time zone offset

week

The number of the ISO 8601 week-numbering week of the year. By definition, ISO weeks start on Mondays and the first week of a year contains January 4 of that year. In other words, the first Thursday of a year is in week 1 of that year.

In the ISO week-numbering system, it is possible for early-January dates to be part of the 52nd or 53rd week of the previous year, and for late-December dates to be part of the first week of the next year. For example, 2005-01-01 is part of the 53rd week of year 2004, and 2006-01-01 is part of the 52nd week of year 2005, while 2012-12-31 is part of the first week of 2013. It’s recommended to use the isoyear field together with week to get consistent results.

SELECT EXTRACT(WEEK FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 7 

year

The year field. Keep in mind there is no 0 AD, so subtracting BC years from AD years should be done with care.

SELECT EXTRACT(YEAR FROM TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 2001
date_part('field', source)

Note that here the field parameter needs to be a string value, not a name. The valid field names for date_part are the same as for extract.

SELECT date_part('day', TIMESTAMP '2001-02-16 20:38:40');
Result: 16
SELECT date_part('hour', INTERVAL '4 hours 3 minutes');
Result: 4