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Insert

Synopsis

[ WITH [ RECURSIVE ] with_query [, ...] ]
INSERT INTO table_name [ AS alias ] [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ]
[ OVERRIDING { SYSTEM | USER} VALUE ]
{ DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) [, ...] | query }
[ ON CONFLICT [ conflict_target ] conflict_action ]
[ RETURNING * | output_expression [ [ AS ] output_name ] [, ...] ]
where conflict_target can be one of:
( { index_column_name | ( index_expression ) } [ COLLATE collation ] [ opclass ] [, ...] ) [ WHERE index_predicate ] ON CONSTRAINT constraint_name
and conflict_action is one of:
DO NOTHING
DO UPDATE SET { column_name = { expression | DEFAULT } | ( column_name [, ...] ) = [ ROW ] ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) | ( column_name [, ...] ) = ( sub-SELECT ) } [, ...]
[ WHERE condition ]

Description

INSERT inserts new rows into a table. One can insert one or more rows specified by value expressions, or zero or more rows resulting from a query.

The target column names can be listed in any order. If no list of column names is given at all, the default is all the columns of the table in their declared order; or the first N column names, if there are only N columns supplied by the VALUES clause or query. The values supplied by the VALUES clause or query are associated with the explicit or implicit column list left-to-right.

Each column not present in the explicit or implicit column list will be filled with a default value, either its declared default value or null if there is none.

If the expression for any column is not of the correct data type, automatic type conversion will be attempted.

The optional RETURNING clause causes INSERT to compute and return value(s) based on each row actually inserted (or updated if an ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE clause was used). This is primarily useful for obtaining values that were supplied by defaults, such as a serial sequence number. However, any expression using the table’s columns is allowed. The syntax of the RETURNING list is identical to that of the output list of SELECT. Only rows that were successfully inserted or updated will be returned. For example, if a row was locked but not updated because an ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE WHERE clause condition was not satisfied, the row will not be returned.

You must have INSERT privilege on a table in order to insert into it. If ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE is present, UPDATE privilege on the table is also required.

If a column list is specified, you only need INSERT privilege on the listed columns. Similarly, when ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE is specified, you only need UPDATE privilege on the column(s) that are listed to be updated. However, ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE also requires SELECT privilege on any column whose values are read in the ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE expressions or condition.

Use of the RETURNING clause requires SELECT privilege on all columns mentioned in RETURNING. If you use the query clause to insert rows from a query, you, of course, need to have SELECT privilege on any table or column used in the query.